Published: April 23 2020

Angular 9 - Template-Driven Forms Validation Example

Example built with Angular 9.1.3

Other versions available:

This is a quick example of how to setup form validation in Angular 9 using Template-Driven Forms. The example is a simple registration form with pretty standard fields for title, first name, last name, email, password, confirm password and an accept terms and conditions checkbox. All fields are required including the checkbox, the password field must have a min length of 6 and the email address must be in a valid format. There's also a custom validator and directive called MustMatch which is used to validate that the confirm password and password fields match.

I've setup the form to validate on submit rather than as soon as each field is changed, this is implemented using the f.submitted property of the #f="ngForm" template variable which is true after the form is submitted for the first time.

Styling of the example is all done with Bootstrap 4.4 CSS, for more info about Bootstrap see

Here it is in action: (See on StackBlitz at

App Component

The component doesn't need to do much when using template-driven forms since the form fields and validators are defined in the component template below. The component defines a model object which is bound to the form fields in the template so the component has access to the data entered into the form.

import { Component } from '@angular/core';

@Component({ selector: 'app', templateUrl: 'app.component.html' })
export class AppComponent {
  model: any = {};

  onSubmit() {
    alert('SUCCESS!! :-)\n\n' + JSON.stringify(this.model, null, 4));

App Component Template

The app component template contains all the html markup for displaying the example registration form in the browser. The form input fields use the [(ngModel)] directive to bind to properties of the model object in the app component. Validation is implemented using the attributes required, minlength and email, the Angular framework contains directives that match these attributes with built-in validator functions.

The form binds the submit event to the onSubmit() method in the app component using the Angular event binding (ngSubmit)="onSubmit()". Validation messages are displayed only after the user attempts to submit the form for the first time, this is controlled with the f.submitted property of the #f="ngForm" Angular template variable.

<!-- main app container -->
<div class="card m-3">
    <h5 class="card-header">Angular 9 Template-Driven Form Validation</h5>
    <div class="card-body">
        <form name="form" (ngSubmit)="f.form.valid && onSubmit()" #f="ngForm" [mustMatch]="['password', 'confirmPassword']" novalidate>
            <div class="form-row">
                <div class="form-group col">
                    <select name="title" class="form-control" [(ngModel)]="model.title" #title="ngModel" [ngClass]="{ 'is-invalid': f.submitted && title.invalid }" required>
                        <option value=""></option>
                        <option value="Mr">Mr</option>
                        <option value="Mrs">Mrs</option>
                        <option value="Miss">Miss</option>
                        <option value="Ms">Ms</option>
                    <div *ngIf="f.submitted && title.invalid" class="invalid-feedback">
                        <div *ngIf="title.errors.required">Title is required</div>
                <div class="form-group col-5">
                    <label>First Name</label>
                    <input type="text" name="firstName" class="form-control" [(ngModel)]="model.firstName" #firstName="ngModel" [ngClass]="{ 'is-invalid': f.submitted && firstName.invalid }" required>
                    <div *ngIf="f.submitted && firstName.invalid" class="invalid-feedback">
                        <div *ngIf="firstName.errors.required">First Name is required</div>
                <div class="form-group col-5">
                    <label>Last Name</label>
                    <input type="text" name="lastName" class="form-control" [(ngModel)]="model.lastName" #lastName="ngModel" [ngClass]="{ 'is-invalid': f.submitted && lastName.invalid }" required>
                    <div *ngIf="f.submitted && lastName.invalid" class="invalid-feedback">
                        <div *ngIf="lastName.errors.required">Last Name is required</div>
            <div class="form-group">
                <input type="text" name="email" class="form-control" [(ngModel)]="" #email="ngModel" [ngClass]="{ 'is-invalid': f.submitted && email.invalid }" required email>
                <div *ngIf="f.submitted && email.invalid" class="invalid-feedback">
                    <div *ngIf="email.errors.required">Email is required</div>
                    <div *ngIf="">Email must be a valid email address</div>
            <div class="form-row">
                <div class="form-group col">
                    <input type="password" name="password" class="form-control" [(ngModel)]="model.password" #password="ngModel" [ngClass]="{ 'is-invalid': f.submitted && password.invalid }" required minlength="6">
                    <div *ngIf="f.submitted && password.invalid" class="invalid-feedback">
                        <div *ngIf="password.errors.required">Password is required</div>
                        <div *ngIf="password.errors.minlength">Password must be at least 6 characters</div>
                <div class="form-group col">
                    <label>Confirm Password</label>
                    <input type="password" name="confirmPassword" class="form-control" [(ngModel)]="model.confirmPassword" #confirmPassword="ngModel" [ngClass]="{ 'is-invalid': f.submitted && confirmPassword.invalid }" required>
                    <div *ngIf="f.submitted && confirmPassword.invalid" class="invalid-feedback">
                        <div *ngIf="confirmPassword.errors.required">Confirm Password is required</div>
                        <div *ngIf="confirmPassword.errors.mustMatch">Passwords must match</div>
            <div class="form-group form-check">
                <input type="checkbox" name="acceptTerms" id="acceptTerms" class="form-check-input" [(ngModel)]="model.acceptTerms" #acceptTerms="ngModel" [ngClass]="{ 'is-invalid': f.submitted && acceptTerms.invalid }" required>
                <label for="acceptTerms" class="form-check-label">Accept Terms & Conditions</label>
                <div *ngIf="f.submitted && acceptTerms.invalid" class="invalid-feedback">Accept Ts & Cs is required</div>
            <div class="text-center">
                <button class="btn btn-primary mr-1">Register</button>
                <button class="btn btn-secondary" type="reset">Cancel</button>

Custom "Must Match" Validator

The custom MustMatch validator is used in this example to validate that both of the password fields match. However it can be used to validate that any pair of fields is matching (e.g. email and confirm email fields).

It works slightly differently than a typical custom validator because I'm setting the error on the second field instead of returning it to be set on the formGroup. I did it this way because I think it makes the template a bit cleaner and more intuitive, the mustMatch validation error is displayed below the confirmPassword field so I think it makes sense that the error is attached the the confirmPassword form control.

import { FormGroup } from '@angular/forms';

// custom validator to check that two fields match
export function MustMatch(controlName: string, matchingControlName: string) {
    return (formGroup: FormGroup) => {
        const control = formGroup.controls[controlName];
        const matchingControl = formGroup.controls[matchingControlName];

        // return null if controls haven't initialised yet
        if (!control || !matchingControl) {
          return null;

        // return null if another validator has already found an error on the matchingControl
        if (matchingControl.errors && !matchingControl.errors.mustMatch) {
            return null;

        // set error on matchingControl if validation fails
        if (control.value !== matchingControl.value) {
            matchingControl.setErrors({ mustMatch: true });
        } else {

Custom "Must Match" Directive

The custom [mustMatch] directive wraps the custom MustMatch validator so we can attach it to the form. A custom validator directive is required when using template-driven forms because we don't have direct access to the FormGroup like in reactive forms.

The directive implements the Validator interface and registers itself with the NG_VALIDATORS provider to let angular know that it's a custom validator directive.

It accepts an array with the names of 2 form controls that must match in order for form validation to pass, e.g. [mustMatch]="['field1', 'field2']" will validate that field1 and field2 contain the same value, otherwise a validation error will be set on field2. You can see it's usage in the form tag of the app template above.

import { Directive, Input } from '@angular/core';
import { NG_VALIDATORS, Validator, ValidationErrors, FormGroup } from '@angular/forms';

import { MustMatch } from './must-match.validator';

    selector: '[mustMatch]',
    providers: [{ provide: NG_VALIDATORS, useExisting: MustMatchDirective, multi: true }]
export class MustMatchDirective implements Validator {
    @Input('mustMatch') mustMatch: string[] = [];

    validate(formGroup: FormGroup): ValidationErrors {
        return MustMatch(this.mustMatch[0], this.mustMatch[1])(formGroup);

App Module

There isn't much going on in the app module other than the standard stuff, the main thing you need to remember for using template-driven forms in Angular is to import the FormsModule from '@angular/forms' and include it in the imports array of the @NgModule decorator. Also import the custom validation directive { MustMatchDirective } from './_helpers/must-match.directive' and include it in the declarations array of the @NgModule decorator.

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';
import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';
import { FormsModule } from '@angular/forms';

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
import { MustMatchDirective } from './_helpers/must-match.directive';

    imports: [
    declarations: [
    bootstrap: [AppComponent]
export class AppModule { }


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